November 26, 2012

Monday, November 26, 2012
Researchers at the University of Texas Medical Branch at Galveston revealed that an FDA-approved medication called rosiglitazone that is used to treat insulin resistance in diabetics also enhances learning and memory. This discovery could improve cognitive performance for those with Alzheimer’s disease.

By studying genetically engineered mice designed to serve as models for Alzheimer's, “the scientists believe that the drug produced the response by reducing the negative influence of Alzheimer's on the behavior of a key brain-signaling molecule.”

The molecule in question is called extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK). In the brains of Alzheimer's patients as well as the mice in the study, this molecule becomes hyperactive, which leads to improper synaptic transmission between neurons thereby interfering with learning and memory.

“Rosiglitazone brings ERK back into line by activating what's known as the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) pathway, which interacts with genes that respond to both PPARγ and ERK.”

Basically, the medication helps to restore signals between neurons so that cognitive functions become more normal. This research opens a gateway allowing researchers to test more FDA-approved drugs to try and normalize insulin resistance in Alzheimer's patients while potentially improving their memory at the same time. It could also lead to a greater understanding of the biology behind the cognitive issues in Alzheimer's disease.

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common form of dementia. There is no cure for the disease, which worsens as it progresses, and eventually leads to death.

  • Memory loss that disrupts daily life.
  • Challenges in planning or solving problems.
  • Difficulty completing familiar tasks at home, at work or at leisure.
  • Confusion with time or place.
  • Trouble understanding visual images and spatial relationships.
  • New problems with words in speaking or writing.
  • Misplacing things and losing the ability to retrace steps.
  • Decreased or poor judgment.
  • Withdrawal from work or social activities.
  • Changes in mood and personality.
  • An estimated 5.4 million Americans of all ages have Alzheimer’s disease in 2012. This figure includes 5.2 million people age 65 and older and 200,000 individuals under age 65 who have younger-onset Alzheimer’s.
  • One in eight people age 65 and older (13 percent) has Alzheimer’s disease.
  • Nearly half of people age 85 and older (45 percent) have Alzheimer’s disease.
  • Of those with Alzheimer’s disease…
    • an estimated 4 percent are under age 65
    • 6 percent are 65 to 74
    • 44 percent are 75 to 84
    • 46 percent are 85 or older
  • Every 68 seconds, someone in America develops Alzheimer’s.
  • By mid-century, someone in America will develop the disease every 33 seconds.
Diabetes Drug Improves Memory, Study Suggests
Alzheimer's disease
Facts and Figures facts and figures


October 5, 2012

Friday, October 05, 2012
Researchers from the Department of Dental Medicine and the Aging Research Center (ARC) at Karolinska Institutet and from Karlstad University in Sweden suggest that the loss of chewing ability may be linked to cognitive decline and a higher risk of dementia.

Dementia is a serious loss of global cognitive ability in a previously unimpaired person, beyond what might be expected from normal aging. It is not considered a single disease, but rather a set of signs and symptoms, in which affected areas of cognition may be memory, attention, language, and problem solving.

The study randomly selected a nationwide sample of 577 participants aged 77 or older to investigate tooth loss, chewing ability and cognitive function. Results showed that individuals that experienced more difficulty chewing hard foods were more at risk of developing cognitive impairments, even when controlling other variables such as sex, age, education and mental health. In addition, chewing with dentures or real teeth had no impact on their results.

It could be that “few or no teeth makes chewing difficult, which leads to a reduction in the blood flow to the brain. However, to date there has been no direct investigation into the significance of chewing ability in a national representative sample of elderly people.”

Unfortunately, this study does not specify whether all participants consumed similarly nutritious meals. Those with a reduced ability to chew certain foods may have been malnourished, which could have played a major role in their cognitive decline.

Nevertheless, the preliminary results of such research certainly provide further support for the fact that oral health impacts overall health. Good oral health brings significant benefits to self-esteem, dignity, social integration and general nutrition.

According the World Health Organization, the proportion of people aged 60 years and older is growing faster than any other age group, as a result of both longer life expectancy and declining fertility rates. Therefore, as our society ages, this type of research becomes more and more relevant…

  • As of 2010, more than 35.6 million people worldwide are living with dementia, or more than the total population of Canada.

  • The global prevalence of dementia stands to double every 20 years, to 65.7 million in 2030, and 115.4 million in 2050.

  • Total health-care costs for people with dementia amount to more than 1 per cent of the global gross domestic product (GDP), or US$604 billion in 2010.
Chewing Ability Linked to Reduced Dementia Risk
Facts about dementia


September 19, 2012

Wednesday, September 19, 2012
New research conducted by the Rush Alzheimer's Disease Center at Rush University Medical Center suggests that emotionally neglected children are at risk of stroke as adults. 
"Studies have shown that children who were neglected emotionally in childhood are at an increased risk of a slew of psychiatric disorders. However, our study is one of few that looked at an association between emotional neglect and stroke," said study author Robert S. Wilson, PhD, a neuropsychologist at Rush.
Researchers’ selected 1,040 participants aged 55+ without dementia from the Memory and Aging Project were surveyed on physical and emotional abuse before the age of 18. Participants were questioned on such areas as how much love they felt from their parents or caregivers as children, whether they felt afraid or intimidated by their caregivers, the method of physical punishment suffered and other questions relating to divorce and family finances.

The participants were followed over a period of 3.5 years. In that time, 257 participants had died. Of the deceased participants, only 192 had brain autopsies, which revealed that 89 of them had experienced strokes. Furthermore, forty of the participants were said to have had strokes based on medical history or an examination.

Furthermore, participants that expressed moderately high levels of emotional neglect in childhood were nearly 3 times more likely to experience a stroke than those reporting moderately low levels of emotional childhood neglect, even when other factors such as diabetes, physical activity, smoking, anxiety and heart problems were controlled.

"The results add to a growing body of evidence suggesting that early life factors such as traumatic childhood experiences influence the development of physical illness and common chronic conditions of old age" says Dr. David A. Bennett, director of the Rush Alzheimer's Disease Center and co-author of the study
Of course results may not be completely reliable since this study relies on a self-report of recalled events many years later, which may be even further clouded given the nature of the potentially traumatic memories.

Emotional Neglect in Children Linked to Increased Stroke Risk Later in Life


August 12, 2012

Sunday, August 12, 2012

William Hu, MD, PhD, assistant professor of neurology at Emory University School of Medicine and collaborators at the University of Pennsylvania and Washington University, St. Louis are getting closer to uncovering an in inexpensive and very convenient test for Alzheimer's disease. 

This type of test has been studied for several years; however reliability of results and an inability to replicate the same results have prevented such a test from being discovered.  Now, scientists have finally found a group of markers that hold up in statistical analyses in three independent groups of patients.

Basically, they measured the levels of 190 proteins in the blood of 600 participants. The subjects studied included healthy volunteers and individuals that had been diagnosed with Alzheimer's disease or mild cognitive impairment (MCI).
“A subset of the 190 protein levels (17) were significantly different in people with MCI or Alzheimer's. When those markers were checked against data from 566 people participating in the multicenter Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative, only four markers remained: apolipoprotein E, B-type natriuretic peptide, C-reactive protein and pancreatic polypeptide.”
Coincidentally, they discovered a correlation among patients that showed changes in their levels of these four proteins and their measurements of proteins [beta-amyloid] levels in their cerebrospinal fluid, a protein previously connected with Alzheimer's disease.  These correlations allowed researchers to group together people with MCI that may be at high risk of developing Alzheimer's.
 "We were looking for a sensitive signal," says Hu. "MCI has been hypothesized to be an early phase of AD, and sensitive markers that capture the physiological changes in both MCI and AD would be most helpful clinically." 
"The specificity of this panel still needs to be determined, since only a small number of patients with non-AD dementias were included," Hu says. "In addition, the differing proportions of patients with MCI in each group make it more difficult to identify MCI- or AD-specific changes."
Unfortunately, researchers have not yet been able to uncover a simple blood test to detect Alzheimer’s disease; however they have discovered ways to ensure that any future tests will be reliable. 

Therefore, neurologists will have to continue to diagnose Alzheimer's disease based mainly from an analysis of clinical symptoms or at times expensive PET brain imaging or painful spinal tap.

Blood Test for Alzheimer's Gaining Ground


June 11, 2012

Monday, June 11, 2012
Researchers of Cornell's Food and Brand Lab may have uncovered a way to stop snacking once a serving size has been reached. Basically, a red potato chip is used as a marker and subconscious stop sign.

Brian Wansink, the John Dyson Professor of Consumer Behavior and author of the best-seller "Mindless Eating: Why We Eat More Than We Think," alongside psychologists Andrew Geier of Yale University and Paul Rozin of the University of Pennsylvania studied 98 college students divided amongst 2 groups. Both groups watched video clips while snacking on Lays Stackables; however one of the groups ate from containers where a certain number of chips were dyed red.

First, researchers placed a red chip at ever 7 or 14 chips to represent 1 or 2 servings respectively. On the second round of studies, researchers placed a red chip at every fifth and tenth chip.
“Unaware of why some of the chips were red, the students who were served those tubes of chips nonetheless consumed about 50 percent less than their peers: 20 and 24 chips on average for the seven-chip and 14-chip segmented tubes, respectively, compared with 45 chips in the control group; 14 and 16 chips for the five-chip and 10-chip segmented tubes, compared with 35 chips in the control group.”
Additionally, participants were more able to accurately estimate the correct number of chips they had consumed if they ate from the container that consisted of red chips acting as serving size markers. On average, those who ate from the containers without red chips actually ate roughly 13 more chips than they thought, whereas those who ate from the containers with red chips guessed the correct amount of chips they had consumed within 1 chip.

"People generally eat what is put in front of them if it is palatable," said Brian Wansink, Cornell Food and Brand Lab director. "An increasing amount of research suggests that some people use visual indication -- such as a clean plate or bottom of a bowl -- to tell them when to stop eating."

Perhaps the most shocking finding is that with a simple red marker, caloric intake had been reduced by 250 calories. Imagine the impact such a basic idea could have on the obesity epidemic in various parts of the world. Evidently, this would snowball into a tremendous effect on health care, which could, in turn, save billions in spending. However, are these companies willing to alter their products to better the health and welfare of their consumers so they consume less? Conceivably an increase in cost could be enough to offset any lost profit; however the consumer may also choose another less expensive product instead. Either way, it seems the only gain is for the consumer.

Edible Stop Signs? A Few Red Chips in the Stack Cut Snacking in Half


May 20, 2012

Sunday, May 20, 2012
A research team at Yale School of Medicine, which includes postdoctoral fellow Ilanit Gordon and Kevin Pelphrey, the Harris Associate Professor of Child Psychiatry and Psychology, have discovered that oxytocin increases function in specific regions of the brain associated with processing social information in children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorders (ASD).

"Our findings provide the first, critical steps toward devising more effective treatments for the core social deficits in autism, which may involve a combination of clinical interventions with an administration of oxytocin," said Gordon. "Such a treatment approach will fundamentally improve our understanding of autism and its treatment."

Autism spectrum disorder describes a range of conditions classified as pervasive developmental disorders in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM). These include autism, Asperger syndrome and pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specified (PDD-NOS). Childhood disintegrative disorder and Rett syndrome are sometimes included among these disorders. Autism spectrum disorders are characterized by social deficits, communication difficulties, stereotyped or repetitive behaviors and interests, and in some cases, cognitive delays. Individuals with these disorders are thought to be "on the spectrum" because of differences in severity across these domains.
  • Autism is characterized by delays or abnormal functioning before the age of three years in one or more of the following domains: (1) social interaction; (2) communication; and (3) restricted, repetitive, and stereotyped patterns of behavior, interests, and activities. Social impairments are marked by poor use of nonverbal communication, difficulty in peer relations, lack of social-emotional reciprocity, and lack of shared enjoyment. Communication deficits may include failure to develop speech, use of stereotyped or delayed echolalia, and difficulties maintaining conversations. Social and communication impairments may also cause a lack of symbolic or imaginative play. Restricted and repetitive behaviors may include unusual preoccupations with narrow interests, inflexibility to nonfunctional routines, stereotyped and repetitive mannerisms, and preoccupations with parts of objections.

  • Asperger syndrome can be distinguished from autism by the lack of delay or deviance in early language development. Additionally, individuals with Asperger syndrome do not have significant cognitive delays. An individual with Asperger syndrome typically demonstrates obsessive interest in a single topic or activity. Other symptoms include repetitive routines or rituals, peculiarities in speech and language, inappropriate affect or social behavior, problems with non-verbal communication, and clumsy or uncoordinated motor movements. Because of these difficulties, individuals with Asperger syndrome often have trouble interacting with others.

  • Pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specified (PDD-NOS) is considered "subthreshold autism" and "atypical autism" because it is often characterized by milder symptoms of autism or symptoms in only one domain (such as social difficulties). Persons with PDD-NOS may demonstrate pervasive deficits in the development of reciprocal social interaction or stereotyped behaviors, but do not meet the criteria for a specific pervasive developmental disorder or other psychological disorders (such as schizophrenia or avoidant personality disorder).
NB - Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is a proposed revision to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders 5 (DSM-5), which will be released in May 2013.

At present, there is no specific cause or specific causes of autism spectrum disorders, however many risk factors have been identified that may contribute to the development of an ASD, such as genetics, prenatal and perinatal factors, neuroanatomical abnormalities, and environmental factors.

In addition, although there has been significant progress in the field of autism research, there are still few effective treatments and none that specifically target the social characteristics of the disorder. That being said, the role of oxytocin in autism and its potential ability to treat social aspects of the disorder have been studied for some time, however more recent attention has been given to the hormone for its involvement in regulating social abilities.
“Oxytocin is a mammalian hormone that acts primarily as a neuromodulator in the brain. It is best known for its roles in sexual reproduction, in particular during and after childbirth. It is released in large amounts after distension of the cervix and uterus during labor, facilitating birth, and after stimulation of the nipples, facilitating breastfeeding.
Recent studies have begun to investigate oxytocin's role in various behaviors, including orgasm, social recognition, pair bonding, anxiety, and maternal behaviors. For this reason, it is sometimes referred to as the "love hormone." The inability to secrete oxytocin and feel empathy is linked to sociopathy, psychopathy, narcissism and general manipulativeness.”
As a result, the team decided to investigate oxytocin further by conducting a first-of-its-kind, double-blind, placebo-controlled study on children and adolescents between the ages of 7 and 18 with ASD. Each participant was administered a single dose of oxytocin in a nasal spray, while functional magnetic resonance brain imaging was used to observe its effect.

“The team found that oxytocin increased activations in brain regions known to process social information. Gordon said these brain activations were linked to tasks involving multiple social information processing routes, such as seeing, hearing, and processing information relevant to understanding other people.”

A clearer understanding and effective treatment is needed as “it is estimated that one in every 110 children is diagnosed with autism (and one (1) in every 70 boys), making it more common than childhood cancer, juvenile diabetes and pediatric AIDS combined. An estimated 1.5 million individuals in the U.S. and tens of millions worldwide are affected by autism.”

Oxytocin Improves Brain Function in Children With Autism
Autism spectrum
The Arc


April 10, 2012

Tuesday, April 10, 2012
In recent news, it has been reported by the University of California Davis MIND (Medical Investigation of Neurodevelopmental Disorders) Institute that obese pregnant women are at higher risk of bearing children with autism than their healthy-weight counterparts.
“Autism is a disorder of neural development characterized by impaired social interaction and communication, and by restricted and repetitive behavior. For a diagnosis to be made, symptoms must become apparent before a child is three years old. Autism affects information processing in the brain by altering how nerve cells and their synapses connect and organize; how this occurs is not well understood. It is one of three recognized disorders in the autism spectrum (ASDs), the other two being Asperger syndrome, which lacks delays in cognitive development and language, and pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specified (commonly abbreviated as PDD-NOS), which is diagnosed when the full set of criteria for autism or Asperger syndrome are not met.”
According to this study, nearly 60% of child-bearing women aged 20 to 39 in the U.S. are overweight and one-third are obese. Similarly, nearly 29% of Canadian women are overweight and 23% are obese as per Statistics Canada. In addition, obesity rates are on a rapid incline for women between the ages of 25 and 34 years and to the point that it is almost twice as high as it was 25 years ago.

At the same time, the prevalence of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) appears to be growing alongside these rates as approximately 1 in every 110 children is diagnosed with this disorder.

At present, the exact cause of autism is not known; however there is significant research to suggest that its development likely occurs in the womb, therefore lead author Paula Krakowiak wondered whether there might be a connection between obesity rates among women of child-bearing age and autism.

Researchers studied more than 1,000 children and their mothers to obtain evidence to support for their claim that obesity and diabetes during pregnancy could put children at increased risk for autism spectrum disorder and other neurodevelopmental problems. The team analyzed data gathered via telephone interviews and medical records from mothers with children aged 2 to 5 born in California and enrolled in the CHARGE (Childhood Autism Risks from Genetics and the Environment) Study between January 2003 and June 2010. Of those studied, 513 children had autism; 172 had other developmental disorders and 315 children were developing normally. Researchers took into account the mother’s age at the time of delivery, their education level and various other factors.

Results showed that “overall, obesity, diabetes and high blood pressure were more prevalent among mothers of children with autism or other developmental disorders than the "control" moms.” In addition, “obese women were 67 per cent more likely to have a child with autism compared to healthy-weight mothers. They were also about twice as likely to have a child with another developmental disorder.” Basically, 21.5% of the mothers with autistic children and 23.8% of the mothers with children with another developmental disorder were obese whereas only 14.3% of the mothers with normally developing children were considered obese. Furthermore, “mothers with diabetes were found to have nearly twice the chance of having a child with developmental delays as healthy mothers.”

If proven, imagine how this new discovery might impact public health…

Autism Linked To Obesity During Pregnancy


March 9, 2012

Friday, March 09, 2012
Scientists at the University of British Columbia have released a study, which suggests that the youngest kids in a classroom are those that are most likely to be taking medication to treat attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.
“The study of almost one million B.C. schoolchildren ages six to 12 during an 11-year period found those born in December were 39% more likely to be diagnosed with ADHD and 48% more likely to be medicated than those born in January.”
However, researchers question whether these children have been diagnosed accurately or whether doctors may have confounded the fact that these kids are merely less mature and academically or athletically inclined due to the simple fact that they have not had those extra few months to develop as much as their peers. This gap in age within the same school grade creates what researchers call the “relative age effect” and it could be leading to many false diagnoses.
“Younger, less mature children are inappropriately being labelled and treated,” said lead author Richard Morrow of UBC’s Department of Anesthesiology, Pharmacology and Therapeutics.
Basically, children born closer to December can be almost a full year less developed than their classmates.

Although research suggests that boys are three times more likely to be treated for ADHD than girls, the age gap still applies to both genders. “Girls born in December and earlier within their grade were 70% more likely to be diagnosed with ADHD compared to January-born girls.”

Ultimately, a false diagnosis and treatment with unnecessary medications could potentially cause more harm than good. “Being been labelled ADHD can often cause children to be treated differently by teachers and parents, possibly leading to poor self-esteem and social issues.”


ADHD is a problem with inattentiveness, over-activity, impulsivity, or a combination. It is the most commonly diagnosed behavioral disorder of childhood. It affects about 3 - 5% of school aged children. It is also diagnosed much more often in boys than in girls.

Inattentive symptoms:

  1. Fails to give close attention to details or makes careless mistakes in schoolwork
  2. Has difficulty keeping attention during tasks or play
  3. Does not seem to listen when spoken to directly
  4. Does not follow through on instructions and fails to finish schoolwork, chores, or duties in the workplace
  5. Has difficulty organizing tasks and activities
  6. Avoids or dislikes tasks that require sustained mental effort (such as schoolwork)
  7. Often loses toys, assignments, pencils, books, or tools needed for tasks or activities
  8. Is easily distracted
  9. Is often forgetful in daily activities
Hyperactivity symptoms:

  1. Fidgets with hands or feet or squirms in seat
  2. Leaves seat when remaining seated is expected
  3. Runs about or climbs in inappropriate situations
  4. Has difficulty playing quietly
  5. Is often "on the go," acts as if "driven by a motor," talks excessively
Impulsivity symptoms:

  1. Blurts out answers before questions have been completed
  2. Has difficulty awaiting turn
  3. Interrupts or intrudes on others (butts into conversations or games)

For diagnosis, symptoms must be out of the normal range for a child's age and development as well as present in more than one setting:

  • Children should have at least 6 attention symptoms or 6 hyperactivity/impulsivity symptoms, with some symptoms present before age 7.

  • The symptoms must be present for at least 6 months, seen in two or more settings, and not caused by another problem.

  • The symptoms must be severe enough to cause significant difficulties in many settings, including home, school, and in relationships with peers.


A combination of medication and behavioral treatment works best. There are several different types of ADHD medications that may be used alone or in combination.

Psychostimulants (also known as stimulants) are the most commonly used ADHD drugs, such as:

  • Amphetamine-dextroamphetamine (Adderall)
  • Dexmethylphenidate (Focalin)
  • Dextroamphetamine (Dexedrine, Dextrostat)
  • Lisdexamfetamine (Vyvanse)
  • Methylphenidate (Ritalin, Concerta, Metadate, Daytrana)
A nonstimulant drug called atomoxetine (Strattera) may work as well as stimulants, and may be less likely to be misused.

WARNING: Some ADHD medicines have been linked to rare sudden death in children with heart problems. Talk to your doctor about which drug is best for your child.

Behavior Therapy

Talk therapy for both the child and family can help everyone understand and gain control of the stressful feelings related to ADHD.

Parents should use a system of rewards and consequences to help guide their child's behavior. It is important to learn to handle disruptive behaviors. Support groups can help you connect with others who have similar problems.

Other tips to help your child with ADHD include:
  • Communicate regularly with the child's teacher.
  • Keep a consistent daily schedule, including regular times for homework, meals, and outdoor activities. Make changes to the schedule in advance and not at the last moment.
  • Limit distractions in the child's environment.
  • Make sure the child gets a healthy, varied diet, with plenty of fiber and basic nutrients.
  • Make sure the child gets enough sleep.
  • Praise and reward good behavior.
  • Provide clear and consistent rules for the child.
Alternative Treatments

Herbs, supplements, and chiropractic treatments have become popular, however, there is little or no solid evidence that these actually work.


ADHD is a long-term, chronic condition. If it is not treated appropriately, ADHD may lead to:
  • Drug and alcohol abuse
  • Failure in school
  • Problems keeping a job
  • Trouble with the law
About half of children with ADHD will continue to have troublesome symptoms of inattention or impulsivity as adults. However, adults are often more capable of controlling behavior and masking difficulties.

Talk to your doctor if you are concerned that your child may have ADHD.

Kids born later in the year more likely to be diagnosed with ADHD: Study
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)


January 16, 2012

Monday, January 16, 2012
According to team leaders, Ruth Drdla-Schutting and Jürgen Sandkühler along with their research team at the MedUni Vienna's Department of Neurophysiology (Centre for Brain Research); opioids can be used for more than temporary pain relief. Apparently, a strong enough dose can actually erase our memory traces of pain in the spinal cord.

At the most basic level, opioids bind to specific sites, called µ-opiate receptors (MOR), which suppresses the stimulation of pain. Characteristically, opioids are only known to alleviate pain while bound to these sites, therefore once treatment is ceased, pain resumes.

Typically, for chronic pain, opioids are administered continuously in moderate doses in order to achieve a permanent binding. This method may result in pain relief, however the treatment is long-term and the cause of pain cannot be eliminated.

To test their theory, that memory traces of pain can be erased with a large enough dose of opioids over a short period, “scientists recreated a surgical procedure in vivo in which pain fibres were stimulated under controlled conditions”.
"Although deep anaesthesia prevents any sensations of pain, we were able to reserve long-term synaptic potentiation in the spinal cord. Despite anaesthesia, there appears to be a memory trace for pain and a pain amplifier has engaged."

“Long-term potentiation (LTP) is a long-lasting enhancement in signal transmission between two neurons that results from stimulating them synchronously.”

Researchers administered high doses of intravenous opioids over a period of an hour and discovered that this completely removed the long-term potentiation. By doing so, this can reverse the cellular changes that cause pain memories. As such, this could actually rid the memory of the sensation that pain is amplified and longer lasting than in actuality and avoid the development chronic pain syndrome.

If proven to be an effective method of treatment, this could mean more than pain management for many people suffering with chronic pain. Current methods temporarily relieve symptoms of pain and typically require long-term opioid use. This type of treatment could greatly reduce the risk of a rapidly growing form of addiction.

Opioids Erase Memory Traces of Pain
Long-term potentiation
mu Opioid receptor


January 12, 2012

Thursday, January 12, 2012

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