January 19, 2013

Saturday, January 19, 2013

Research shows that the use of choline supplements during pregnancy may prevent schizophrenia.  Specifically, lower rates of physiological schizophrenic risk factors in infants 33 days old has been noted when the dietary supplement is given during the second and third trimesters of pregnancy and early infancy.

Robert Freedman, MD, professor and chairman of the Department of Psychiatry, University of Colorado School of Medicine and one of the study's authors states: "Basic research indicates that choline supplementation during pregnancy facilitates cognitive functioning in offspring. Our finding that it ameliorates some of the pathophysiology associated with risk for schizophrenia now requires longer-term follow-up to assess whether it decreases risk for the later development of illness as well."

Choline is a water-soluble essential nutrient, typically grouped within the B-complex vitamins. It can be found naturally in foods such as liver, muscle meats, fish, nuts and eggs.  According to the American Institute of Medicine, pregnant women require between 450 and 3500 milligrams of choline each day and 550 to 3500 milligrams while lactating.  Infants aged 0-6 months need a minimum daily dose of 125 milligrams of choline and 150 milligrams from 7-12 months of age.

“Choline is also being studied for potential benefits in liver disease, including chronic hepatitis and cirrhosis, depression, memory loss, Alzheimer's disease and dementia, and certain types of seizures.”

To test their theory, researchers observed infant responses to a clicking sound.  Typically, the brain responds fully to an initial click, however the response to a second click immediately following the first is inhibited.  This trait is often absent among schizophrenia patients and relates to poor sensory filtering and familial transmission of schizophrenia risk.  Researchers observed this effect among infants to represent the illness as schizophrenia does not normally appear until adolescence.

“Half the healthy pregnant women in this study took 3,600 milligrams of phosphatidylcholine each morning and 2,700 milligrams each evening; the other half took placebo. After delivery, their infants received 100 milligrams of phosphatidylcholine per day or placebo. Eighty-six percent of infants exposed to pre- and postnatal choline supplementation, compared to 43% of unexposed infants, inhibited the response to repeated sounds, as measured with EEG sensors placed on the baby's head during sleep.”

These results could not only assist in early detection of schizophrenia, but may even help in preventing the illness or developing more effective treatments.

Some examples of choline found in different food sources:

Type of Food
mg of choline
5 ounces (142 g) raw beef liver
473
Large hardboiled egg
113
Half a pound (227 g) cod fish
190
Half a pound of chicken
150
Quart of milk, 1% fat
173
A gram soy lecithin
30
100 grams of Soybeans dry
116
A pound (454 grams) of cauliflower
177
A pound of spinach
113
A cup of wheat germ
202
Two cups (0.47 liters) firm tofu
142
Two cups of cooked kidney beans
108
A cup of uncooked quinoa
119
A cup of uncooked amaranth
135
A grapefruit
19
Three cups (710 cc) cooked brown rice
54
A cup (146 g) of peanuts
77
A cup (143 g) of almonds
74

Choline Supplementation DuringPregnancy Presents a New Approach to Schizophrenia Prevention
Choline

, , , , , , , , , , ,

No comments

0 comments:

Popular Posts

Zetadental.co.uk is dental equipment supplier, we provide high quality dental instruments, dental handpiece at a discount price. Free shipping worldwide.

About Me

I have an educational background is in Psychology and Sociology. In addition, I have worked with many diverse individuals of all ages, with varying degrees of mental and/or physical illness. I enjoy following current news and research that impacts my area of expertise.

Categories

9/11 AADD Abortion Academic Success Acetylcholine ADD Adderall Addiction ADHD Adult Attention Deficit Disorder Adultery Advertising Aggression Aging AIDS Air Pressure Alcohol Alcohol Abuse Alcohol Dependence Alcoholism alpha-CaM kinase II Altitude Alzheimer's Amphetamine Amygdala Amyloid Amyloid Deposition Anesthesia Anger Anterior Cingulate Cortex Anterograde Amnesia Anti-Depressants Anti-Psychotic Anticholinergic Anticonvulsant Antiepileptic Antioxidants Anxiety Anxious-Avoidant Anxious-Preoccupied Apolipoprotein E Army Aromatherapy Asperger Syndrome Assessment Associative Learning Asthma Attachment Theory Attention Attention Deficit Disorder Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Autism Autism Spectrum Disorder Average Sleep Requirements B-type Natriuretic Peptide Babies Balance Behavioral Problems Behaviour Behavioural Impairment Behavioural Therapy Benadryl Bipolar Disorder Blood Clot Blood Pressure Blue Light Blue Light Goggles Body Mass Index Bone Marrow Brain Brain Development Brain Imaging Brain Injury Brain Stem Brain Surgery Breast Cancer Buddhism bullying Bupropion Business C-reactive Protein Calories CAMH Canada Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms Cancer Carbohydrates Cardiovascular Disease Care Facilities Caregiver cars Cdk5 Cell Phone Central Nervous System Centre for Addiction and Mental Health Cerebellum Cerebral Amyloid Angiopathy Cerebral Cortex Cerebrospinal Fluid Cerebrovascular Accident Cerebrovascular Insult Chat Rooms Chewing Childhood Disabilities Childhood Disintegrative Disorder Childhood Emotional Neglect Children Chitin Chitosan Cholesterol Choline Chromosome Chronic Pain Syndrome Chronic Stress Circadian Rhythm Cirrhosis Citalopram Classical Conditioning Climate Change Clot-Busting Drug Co-morbidity Cocaine Cognition Cognitive Development Cognitive Impairment Colloquially Brain Attack Coma Communication Device Communication Technology Concentration Concerta Concussion Conflict Confusion Control Group Coordination Correlation Cortisol Counselling Couples CPAP Crack CRASH-2 CRASH-3 Creativity Criminal Code Cyberbullying Cyberpsychology Cyklokapron Daytrana Death Death Toll Decision-Making Declarative Memory Deep Brain Stimulation Delusion Dementia Dentures Depression Destrostat Deviant Behaviour Dexedrine Dextromethorphan Diabetes Diet Dietary Supplements Diphenhydramine Disability discrimination Dismissive-Avoidant Disorganized Attachment Disorganized Speech Disorientation Dizziness Docosahexaenoic Acid (DHA) Double-Blind Dream Drinking Drowsiness Drug Abuse Drug Dependence Drug Use Drugs DSM DSM-5 Dual Diagnosis Early Onset Alzheimer's Economic Crisis Ecstasy Effexor Ego Eicosapentaenoic Acid (EPA) Elderly Electrical Stimulation Electroconvulsive Therapy Electrodes Email Embitterment Embolic Emotion Emotional Neglect Emotional Problems Emotional Well-Being Employee Enrivonment Enzyme Epilepsy Estrogen Ethics Evolution Experimental Group Extracellular Signal-Regulated Kinase (ERK) Facebook Facebook Fan Page Facebook Friends Family Family Therapy Fast Food Father Father Absenteeism Fatherhood FDA Fear Fearful-Avoidant FeelingBetterNow Fetus Fibrin Fish Oil fluoxetine fMRI Focalin Focus Food Fraud Friday Gamma Secretase Genetic Disorders Genetics Ginkgo Biloba Glucose Glutamate Receptor God Gout Guest Blogger Hair Pulling Haiti Hallucination Hallucinogenic Halo Effect Harm-Reduction Headache Healthy Eating Hearing Heart Attack Heart Disease Hematopoietic Stem Cells Hepatitis Hepatitis C Herbal Supplements Hereditary Angioedema Heredity Heroin High Blood Pressure Hippocampus Hockey Homelessness Hormone Housing Hox Genes Hoxb8 Cells Human Rights Hydromorphone Hyper-social Networker Hyperactivity Hypothalamus Illness Impulse Control Impulsivity Inattentiveness Infant Infidelity Inflammation Insecure Attachment Insomnia Instant Messaging Insulin Intellectual Development Intellectual Disability Internet Intracranial Bleeding Introvert Ischemic Stroke KASPAR Ketamine Ketogenic Kleptomania Laptop Latent Inhibition Learning Learning Disability Leukotrienes Limbic System Lithium Liver Locked-In Syndrome Long Term Memory Long-Term Potentiation Longevity Lupus Lysteda Maestro Rechargeable System Major Depression Mania MAOI Marriage MDMA Medication Meditation Melatonin Memory Memory Loss Memory Task Men Mental Health Mental Health Forum Mental Heath Mental Illness Metadate Metyrapone Mice Microglia Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) Mild Traumatic Brain Injury Military Mind-Body Mindless Eating Mitochondria MOHLTC Mood Disorder Morphine Mortality Rates MRI MS-275 Multiple Sclerosis Muscle Weakness music therapy Natasha Richardson National Sleep Foundation Natural Disaster Nature/Nurture Nausea Necrosis Neglect Nerve Neuro-imaging Neurobiology Neurodegeneration Neurodegenrative Diseases Neurodevelopment Disorders Neurogenesis Neuromarketing Neuron Neurotransmitter News Nintendo Wii Non-REM Sleep Nose Nurse Ratched Nutrition Obesity Obessive Compulsive Spectrum Disorder (OCD) Offspring Olfactory Gland OM3 Emotional Balance Omega 3 Ontario Ontario Review Board Ontario Works Opioid Oral Health Organic Ottawa Over-activity Over-Medication Ovulation Oxidative Cell Oxygen Oxytocin p35 Pacemaker Pain Pain Killer Pain Management Pancreatic Polypeptide Pancreatitis Paralysis Paranoia Paraskevidekatriaphobia Parenthood Parents Parkinson's Paroxetine Paxil PDD-NOS perception Perfume Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor Gamma (PPARγ) Pathway personality traits Pervasive Developmental Disorder Not Otherwise Specified (PDD-NOS) PET Scan Pharmacology Phobias Physical Health Physiological Plasmin Plasminogen Plasticity Platelet-Activating Factor Politics Post-Concussion Assessment and Cognitive Test (ImPACT) Potassium Ion Channel Poverty Pregnancy Pressure Procedural Memory Promiscuity Prozac PsychBoard.com Psychiatric Ward Psychological Psychological Inventories Psychologist Psychology Psychology Forum Psychology of Eating Psychosis PTED PTSD Public Health Pyromania Quadriplegic Rehab Relationships Reliability Religion REM Research Retigabine Retrograde Amnesia Rett Syndrome Risperdal Ritalin road rage Robot Robotics Rodent Research Rosiglitazone Samsung Satiety Scales Schizophrenia School Screening Secure Attachment Sedatives Seizure Self-Affirmation Intervention Self-Confidence Self-Esteem Self-Integrity Self-Worth Semantic Memory Senior Seroquel Serotonin Serzone Sex Sex Therapy Sexual Orientation Sexual Satisfaction Shock Therapy Sideline Concussion Assessment Test (SCAT2) Sleep Sleep Apnea Sleep Disorders Sleep Quality Sleep Stages Smartphone Smoking Snacking Sniffing Technology Social Assistance Social Deficits Social Isolation Social Media Social Network Social Rejection Social Skills Social Worker Socialization Societal Change Soft Palate Soldier Spatial Memory Special K Speech Spinal Cord Spinal Cord Injury Spinal Tap Sports Injury SSRI Statin Stem Cell Stimulant Strattera Stress Stress Hormone Stroke Substance Abuse Sugar Suicide Superstition Support Survey Suspicious Tablet Talk Therapy Tamoxifen Tanorexia Tax Payer Technology Television Telomere Temperature Testosterone Texting Therapy Thorazine Threshold Thrombosis Thrombotic Tinnitus Tissue Plasminogen Activator Topographical Disorientation Tranexamic Acid Trauma Treatment Tremors Trial Tribunal Trichotillomania Type-2 Diabetes Vagus Nerve Validity Ventromedial Prefrontal Cortex Video Games Virtual Reality Vision Visual Attention Vitamin B Vitamins Vitiligo Voice Vyvanse Walnuts Weight Loss Welfare Wellbutrin Wernicke–Korsakoff syndrome Wet Brain White Blood Cells Women Work World Health Organization Zileuton Zyban Zyprexa µ-opiate receptors (MOR)