August 22, 2010

Sunday, August 22, 2010

Ketamine is a fast-acting liquid anesthetic used mainly by veterinarians; it's also used in human medicine, even in children, because it doesn't depress breathing.

It's also an illegal club drug, known as "special K" or "vitamin K."

The street version is usually sold in a powder form that can be snorted or mixed into drinks, or dissolved into a liquid and injected.

It acts like LSD, causing vivid hallucinations in users and a sensation of floating outside their bodies.
Researchers at Yale University have discovered that a single dose of ketamine helps the brain to form new synaptic connections between neurons and can begin to relieve depressive symptoms in a little as 40 minutes.

In contrast, Prozac and other types of antidepressants can take anywhere from two weeks to a full month before they start to demonstrate any real results, in which benefits can only be seen in about a third of patients. This new antidepressant is now being tested in Canada with promising results.

Dr. James Kennedy, director of the neuroscience research department at the Centre for Addiction and Mental Health in Toronto states that ketamine might alleviate what has been known as a “major clinical problem”. The 2 - 4 weeks that patients await relief is a critical time where devastating outcomes, such as suicide, can occur because they begin to feel more energetic but depressive symptoms remain. Not only is there hope for those with difficult to treat depression, ketamine could actually save lives.
Earlier studies involving patients with "treatment-resistant" depression have found that those given a single dose of ketamine experience rapid and significant improvement in symptoms.

In a small study published earlier this month on patients with bipolar depression, 71 per cent of participants responded to ketamine versus six per cent who responded to placebo.
In addition to being fast-acting, studies show that relief can last for 7 – 10 days, according to professor of psychiatry and neurobiology at Yale, Ronald Duman, who calls ketamine a “magic drug”.

Duman also believes that this so-called magic drug may be able to reverse the effects of stress on the brain by repairing damaged connections between neurons caused by chronic stress.

Although ketamine may not be the ideal long-term solution for treating depression, it could certainly lead to the development of similar compounds that may produce the same effect, but can be more easily administered with less potential for abuse.

"Imagine someone who is in the ER (emergency department) and is highly suicidal. It would be a way to decrease the suicidal risk" says Dr. Pierre Blier, director of mood disorders research at the Institute of Mental Health Research and Canada Research Chair in Psychopharmacology at the Royal Ottawa Mental Health Centre, who has started using ketamine on some of his patients.

Sources:
'Magic drug' gives hope to bipolar patients - Ketamine is mainly used as an anesthetic by vets but shows promise in treating depression

© www.mentalhealthblog.com

August 8, 2010

Sunday, August 08, 2010
Researchers in Toronto, Canada have developed an experimental brain surgery that may delay the progression of Alzheimer’s disease. Six subjects with Alzheimer’s disease and an average age of 61 experienced this surgery called deep brain stimulation. The subjects continued to take their Alzheimer’s medication throughout the study.

Scientists implanted “electrodes in the brain's hippocampus, which plays a role in long-term memory. The electrical conductor acts as a pacemaker-like device in the head just beneath the skin. It is connected to a battery pack in the chest.”

Consequently, the mini-mental state exam, a cognitive test, revealed that half of the participants experienced a slow-down in the degenerative effects Alzheimer’s disease has on the brain, while the other half continued to decline in a manner typical of the disease’s progression.

While this new research has produced some promising results, deep brain stimulation is not a novel idea since it has been around for decades. For instance, Dr. Andres Lozano, a neurosurgeon at Toronto's University Health Network, experimented with its effects on Parkinson’s disease without success, unfortunately.

Although not all subjects experienced positive outcomes with this surgery, 64 year old, former city counselor from Brampton, Ontario, Robert Linton, recalled vivid memories of a day he spent fishing.
"I'm with my son," Linton recalled to reporters at Toronto Western Hospital. "I could see that muskie coming right at me as I was sitting in the chair, in Technicolor". "That's the power of touching a spot in your brain. I'm sold on it."
Currently, Lozano and his research team are recruiting roughly 50 people willing to install the stimulator. The plan is to activate half of the stimulators immediately and the other half only six months later all the while participants’ knowledge of its activation will remain unknown in order to truly test the benefits of the device.

Although, the true value of this device is not yet known, the actual retail cost if this treatment became available, would be between $15,000 and $20,000 per patient with a battery life of up to five years.

At the moment, I’m unsure whether I approve of this type of treatment. For one, results are insufficient therefore there is no real proof that the surgery will benefit enough people. Secondly, I am reminded of electroconvulsive therapy and I cannot get the image of Nurse Ratched delivering shock therapy out of my head…

Deep brain stimulation tested for Alzheimer's

© www.mentalhealthblog.com

Popular Posts

Dentalget.com is dental equipment supplier, we provide high quality dental instruments, dental handpiece at a discount price. Free shipping worldwide.

About Me

I have an educational background is in Psychology and Sociology. In addition, I have worked with many diverse individuals of all ages, with varying degrees of mental and/or physical illness. I enjoy following current news and research that impacts my area of expertise.

Categories

9/11 AADD Abortion Academic Success Acetylcholine ADD Adderall Addiction ADHD Adult Attention Deficit Disorder Adultery Advertising Aggression Aging Agreeableness AIDS Air Pressure Alcohol Alcohol Abuse Alcohol Dependence Alcoholism alpha-CaM kinase II Altitude Alzheimer's Amphetamine Amygdala Amyloid Amyloid Deposition Anesthesia Anger Anterior Cingulate Cortex Anterograde Amnesia Anti-Depressants Anti-Psychotic Anticholinergic Anticonvulsant Antiepileptic Antioxidants Anxiety Anxious-Avoidant Anxious-Preoccupied Apolipoprotein E Army Aromatherapy Asperger Syndrome Assessment Associative Learning Asthma Attachment Theory Attention Attention Deficit Disorder Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Autism Autism Spectrum Disorder Autonomic Nervous System Average Sleep Requirements B-type Natriuretic Peptide Babies Balance Behavioral Problems Behaviour Behavioural Impairment Behavioural Therapy Benadryl Bipolar Disorder Blood Clot Blood Pressure Blue Light Blue Light Goggles Body Mass Index Bone Marrow Brain Brain Development Brain Imaging Brain Injury Brain Stem Brain Surgery Breast Cancer Buddhism bullying Bupropion Business C-reactive Protein Calories CAMH Canada Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms Cancer Carbohydrates Cardiovascular Disease Care Facilities Caregiver cars Cdk5 Cell Phone Central Nervous System Centre for Addiction and Mental Health Cerebellum Cerebral Amyloid Angiopathy Cerebral Cortex Cerebrospinal Fluid Cerebrovascular Accident Cerebrovascular Insult Chat Rooms Chewing Childhood Disabilities Childhood Disintegrative Disorder Childhood Emotional Neglect Children Chitin Chitosan Cholesterol Choline Chromosome Chronic Pain Syndrome Chronic Stress Circadian Rhythm Cirrhosis Citalopram Classical Conditioning Climate Change Clot-Busting Drug Co-morbidity Cocaine Cognition Cognitive Development Cognitive Impairment Colloquially Brain Attack Coma Communication Device Communication Technology Concentration Concerta Concussion Conflict Confusion Conscientiousness Control Group Coordination Correlation Cortisol Counselling Couples CPAP Crack CRASH-2 CRASH-3 Creativity Criminal Code Cyberbullying Cyberpsychology Cyklokapron Daytrana Death Death Toll Decision-Making Declarative Memory Deep Brain Stimulation Delusion Dementia Dentures Depression Destrostat Deviant Behaviour Dexedrine Dextromethorphan Diabetes Diet Dietary Supplements Diphenhydramine Disability discrimination Dismissive-Avoidant Disorganized Attachment Disorganized Speech Disorientation Dizziness Docosahexaenoic Acid (DHA) Double-Blind Dream Drinking Drowsiness Drug Abuse Drug Dependence Drug Use Drugs DSM DSM-5 Dual Diagnosis Early Onset Alzheimer's Economic Crisis Ecstasy Effexor Ego Eicosapentaenoic Acid (EPA) Elderly Electrical Stimulation Electroconvulsive Therapy Electrodes Email Embitterment Embolic Emotion Emotional Neglect Emotional Problems Emotional Well-Being Employee Enrivonment Enzyme Epilepsy Estrogen Ethics Evolution Experimental Group Extracellular Signal-Regulated Kinase (ERK) Extroversion Facebook Facebook Fan Page Facebook Friends Family Family Therapy Fast Food Father Father Absenteeism Fatherhood FDA Fear Fearful-Avoidant FeelingBetterNow Fetus Fibrin Fish Oil fluoxetine fMRI Focalin Focus Food Fraud Friday Gamma Secretase Genetic Disorders Genetics Ginkgo Biloba Glucose Glutamate Receptor God Gout Guest Blogger Hair Pulling Haiti Hallucination Hallucinogenic Halo Effect Harm-Reduction Headache Healthy Eating Hearing Heart Attack Heart Disease Hematopoietic Stem Cells Hepatitis Hepatitis C Herbal Supplements Hereditary Angioedema Heredity Heroin High Blood Pressure Hippocampus Hockey Homelessness Hormone Housing Hox Genes Hoxb8 Cells Human Rights Hydromorphone Hyper-social Networker Hyperactivity Hypothalamus Illness Impulse Control Impulsivity Inattentiveness Infant Infidelity Inflammation Insecure Attachment Insomnia Instant Messaging Insulin Intellectual Development Intellectual Disability Internet Intracranial Bleeding Introversion Introvert Ischemic Stroke KASPAR Ketamine Ketogenic Kleptomania Laptop Latent Inhibition Learning Learning Disability Leukotrienes Limbic System Lithium Liver Locked-In Syndrome Long Term Memory Long-Term Potentiation Longevity Lupus Lysteda Maestro Rechargeable System Major Depression Mania MAOI Marriage MDMA Medication Meditation Melatonin Memory Memory Loss Memory Task Men Mental Health Mental Health Forum Mental Heath Mental Illness Metadate Metyrapone Mice Microglia Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) Mild Traumatic Brain Injury Military Mind-Body Mindless Eating Mitochondria MOHLTC Mood Disorder Morphine Mortality Rates MRI MS-275 Multiple Sclerosis Muscle Weakness music therapy Narcissism Natasha Richardson National Sleep Foundation Natural Disaster Nature/Nurture Nausea Necrosis Neglect Nerve Neuro-imaging Neurobiology Neurodegeneration Neurodegenrative Diseases Neurodevelopment Disorders Neurogenesis Neurological Disease Neuromarketing Neuron Neuropathy Neuroticism Neurotransmitter News Nintendo Wii Non-REM Sleep Nose Nurse Ratched Nutrition Obesity Obessive Compulsive Spectrum Disorder (OCD) Offspring Olfactory Gland OM3 Emotional Balance Omega 3 Ontario Ontario Review Board Ontario Works Opioid Oral Health Organic Ottawa Over-activity Over-Medication Ovulation Oxidative Cell Oxygen Oxytocin p35 Pacemaker Pain Pain Killer Pain Management Pancreatic Polypeptide Pancreatitis Paralysis Paranoia Paraskevidekatriaphobia Parenthood Parents Parkinson's Paroxetine Paxil PDD-NOS perception Perfume Peripheral Nervous System Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor Gamma (PPARγ) Pathway personality traits Pervasive Developmental Disorder Not Otherwise Specified (PDD-NOS) PET Scan Pharmacology Phobias Physical Health Physiological Plasmin Plasminogen Plasticity Platelet-Activating Factor Politics Post-Concussion Assessment and Cognitive Test (ImPACT) Potassium Ion Channel Poverty Pregnancy Pressure Procedural Memory Promiscuity Prozac PsychBoard.com Psychiatric Ward Psychological Psychological Inventories Psychologist Psychology Psychology Forum Psychology of Eating Psychosis PTED PTSD Public Health Pyromania Quadriplegic Rehab Relationships Reliability Religion REM Research Retigabine Retrograde Amnesia Rett Syndrome Risperdal Ritalin road rage Robot Robotics Rodent Research Rosiglitazone Samsung Satiety Scales Schizophrenia School Screening Secure Attachment Sedatives Seizure Self-Affirmation Intervention Self-Confidence Self-Esteem Self-Integrity Self-Worth Semantic Memory Senior Seroquel Serotonin Serzone Sex Sex Therapy Sexual Orientation Sexual Satisfaction Shock Therapy Sideline Concussion Assessment Test (SCAT2) Sleep Sleep Apnea Sleep Disorders Sleep Quality Sleep Stages Smartphone Smoking Snacking Sniffing Technology Social Assistance Social Deficits Social Isolation Social Media Social Network Social Rejection Social Skills Social Worker Socialization Societal Change Soft Palate Soldier Somatic Nervous System Spatial Memory Special K Speech Spinal Cord Spinal Cord Injury Spinal Tap Sports Injury SSRI Statin Stem Cell Stimulant Strattera Stress Stress Hormone Stroke Substance Abuse Sugar Suicide Superstition Support Survey Suspicious Tablet Talk Therapy Tamoxifen Tanorexia Tax Payer Technology Television Telomere Temperature Testosterone Texting Therapy Thorazine Threshold Thrombosis Thrombotic Tinnitus Tissue Plasminogen Activator Topographical Disorientation Tranexamic Acid Trauma Treatment Tremors Trial Tribunal Trichotillomania Type-2 Diabetes Vagus Nerve Validity Ventromedial Prefrontal Cortex Video Games Virtual Reality Vision Visual Attention Vitamin B Vitamins Vitiligo Voice Vyvanse Walnuts Weight Loss Welfare Wellbutrin Wernicke–Korsakoff syndrome Wet Brain White Blood Cells Women Work World Health Organization Zileuton Zyban Zyprexa µ-opiate receptors (MOR)